A study of female genital mutilation

I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward.

Female genital mutilation: resource pack

Type IV is an unclassified designation of other procedures that harm the genitals. The procedure is reported to have been carried out in Kaya, north-east of the capital, Ouagadougou. But, he points out, most people who oppose FGM do so because they regard it as a violation of the human rights of the child, and would still oppose it even if it did confer health benefits.

There are occasional reports of masturbating girls being subjected to involuntary clitoridectomy, but it was only in the late s that a few doctors started to apply to women the theories of nervous disease which already legitimised circumcision in boys.

The penetration of the bride's infibulation takes anywhere from 3 or 4 days to several months. In Somalia and Sudan the situation was reversed: Was your genital area sewn. Australian law, policy and practical challenges for doctors.

She took out a blade and started cutting me. Somalia has the highest rate of FGM in the world with 98 percent of females undergoing the procedure, most of them between the ages of five and nine. See the insightful analysis by R. Sexual cannibalism may have led to selection for larger, stronger, females in invertebrates.

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According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood lossas well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirthperhaps because of a long second stage of labour. Anthropological explanations Unlike male circumcision, which was familiar from Jewish practice, female circumcision was an exotic custom about which Europeans knew very little until the explorations of the eighteenth century.

The demand is generated by recent immigrants from Middle Eastern and African countries where circumcision of girls and boys is a common customary or cultural practice.

Her parents forced her to undergo female genital mutilation at the age of eight years in Tirioko ward, then married her off to a man over 60 years old. The psychological and emotional trauma associated with FGM can scar a victim for life.

There is also wide agreement that circumcision was introduced to males first and only later extended to females, often in an attenuated form.

When you reduce your ethical analysis to benefit-risk ratios, you miss important questions of value. Was your genital area sewn. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinyamost of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category.

The male can increase his chances of paternity if the female's copulatory organs are blocked, which decreases sperm competition and her chances of mating with other males. Beidelman notes the mildness of contemporary female circumcision practices usually no more than a nick on part of the vulva compared with the severity of the procedure on boys - amputation of the entire foreskin.

Case Study 3, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

This broad range of research allowed including journals covering both the biomedical and social sciences. The faster the speed of attack and consumption of prey, the higher the aggressiveness level. Male and Female Circumcision: In another defender of Brown he was "almost on the right track"Dr Robert Morris, went so far as to suggest that, since 80 per cent of American women suffered from preputial adhesions, all schoolgirls should be inspected to ensure that proper separation between prepuce and clitoris had occurred.

I never felt anything when my husband came to my bed at night. Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

This protocol requires States Parties to prohibit FGM through legislative measures backed by sanctions. Her account and those of 83 women and 11 men across five Indian states are included in the first-ever study about female genital mutilation (FGM) in India, compiled by three independent researchers and a coalition of Bohra women against FGM.

European College for the Study of Vulval Disease. The ECSVD is a group of dermatologists, gynaecologists and pathologists who share an interest in all aspects of Vulval Disease. Inthe U.S.

Study finds 'huge' fall in FGM rates among African girls

Congress passed legislation making female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) illegal in the United States. CDC published the first estimates of the number of women and girls at risk for FGM/C in Sincevarious constituencies have again raised concerns about the.

Sexual cannibalism is when a female cannibalizes her mate prior to, during, or after copulation. It is a phenomenon characterized primarily by members of most arachnid orders, as well as several insect orders.

The adaptive foraging hypothesis, aggressive spillover hypothesis and mistaken identity hypothesis are among the proposed theories to explain how sexual cannibalism evolved.

UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family – and especially children and young people.

prospective study in six African countries* WHO study group on female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome Summary Background Reliable evidence about the effect of female genital mutilation (FGM) on obstetric outcome is scarce. This study examines the effect of .

A study of female genital mutilation
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WHO | Classification of female genital mutilation